Anatomy

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  • No innocent bystander: Cartilage contributes to arthritis

    Immune System News -- ScienceDaily
    12 Sep 2014 | 8:25 am
    Cartilage plays an active role in the destruction and remodeling of joints seen in rheumatoid arthritis, rather than being an 'innocent bystander' as previously thought, researchers report.
  • Protein secrets of Ebola virus

    Human Biology News -- ScienceDaily
    15 Sep 2014 | 8:44 am
    The current Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, which has claimed more than 2000 lives, has highlighted the need for a deeper understanding of the molecular biology of the virus that could be critical in the development of vaccines or antiviral drugs to treat or prevent Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
  • Rib regeneration in both humans and mice

    Bones / Orthopedics News From Medical News Today
    16 Sep 2014 | 1:00 am
    Unlike salamanders, mammals can't regenerate lost limbs, but they can repair large sections of their ribs.Mouse rib cage stained to show cartilage (blue) and bone (red).
  • Brain inflammation dramatically disrupts memory retrieval networks, study finds

    Nervous System News -- ScienceDaily
    12 Sep 2014 | 8:25 am
    Brain inflammation can rapidly disrupt our ability to retrieve complex memories of similar but distinct experiences, according to scientists. The study specifically identifies how immune system signaling molecules, called cytokines, impair communication among neurons in the hippocampus, an area of the brain critical for discrimination memory. The findings offer insight into why cognitive deficits occurs in people undergoing chemotherapy and those with autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Protein appears to protect against bone loss in arthritis

    Bones / Orthopedics News From Medical News Today
    15 Sep 2014 | 2:00 am
    A small protein named GILZ appears to protect against the bone loss that often accompanies arthritis and its treatment, researchers report.
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    Anatomy News

  • The science behind the Ice Bucket Challenge

    16 Sep 2014 | 10:32 am
    … science behind the ice bucket challenge this week. We have also researched … additional research. First, the CPS science office dumped ice-cold water over the science … done in Ms. Rocket’s anatomy class at Battle High School …
  • Colossal squid caught; autopsy performed

    16 Sep 2014 | 9:39 am
    September 16, 2014, 10:43 AM|Scientists in New Zealand had the rare opportunity to autopsy an intact colossal squid. They were able to determine the animal was female and measure its length of 13.8 feet
  • Deepak Chopra tries his hand at a clinical trial. Woo ensues.

    16 Sep 2014 | 8:24 am
    … . In some subjects (e.g., anatomy, histology, pathology, and pharmacology), it … misunderstandings between basic scientists and physicians with respect to medical research. It’s … trivial observations, long confirmed by medical science, is not what Chopra is …
  • Tech company to build HQ at N.C. Music Factory, Duke University exonerates fracking, more

    16 Sep 2014 | 7:39 am
    … the university. Investigators are waiting for the results of an autopsy to determine the cause of Anna Smith's death. Scientists at Duke University have determined faulty wells …
  • Digital Pathology Software improves pre-clinical testing efficacy.

    16 Sep 2014 | 7:18 am
    … automation and workflow solutions for anatomic pathology, announced the launch of … of the life science market." Erio Barale-Thomas, principal scientist at Johnson … . Leica Biosystems provides anatomic pathology laboratories and researchers a comprehensive product range …
 
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    Human Biology News -- ScienceDaily

  • Researcher develops, proves effectiveness of new drug for spinal muscular atrophy

    15 Sep 2014 | 1:52 pm
    Approximately one out of every 40 individuals in the United States is a carrier of the gene responsible for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), According to recent studies. This illness is a neurodegenerative disease that causes muscles to weaken over time. Now, researchers have made a recent breakthrough with the development of a new compound found to be highly effective in animal models of the disease.
  • New producer of crucial vitamin B12 discovered

    15 Sep 2014 | 1:52 pm
    A single group of microorganisms may be responsible for much of the world's vitamin B12 production in the oceans, with implications for the global carbon cycle and climate change, researchers have discovered. Thaumarchaeota, they say, are likely dominant vitamin B12 producers.
  • Protein secrets of Ebola virus

    15 Sep 2014 | 8:44 am
    The current Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, which has claimed more than 2000 lives, has highlighted the need for a deeper understanding of the molecular biology of the virus that could be critical in the development of vaccines or antiviral drugs to treat or prevent Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
  • Zebrafish genes linked to human respiratory diseases

    15 Sep 2014 | 8:44 am
    Hundreds of novel genes in the zebrafish have been identified that could be functionally identical to the human genes required for forming motile cilia, hair-like structures on the surface of airway cells. These are required for removing dust and pathogens from the human airway. The study showed that the loss of these genes is linked to development of defective motile cilia, which could be the cause of some respiratory diseases.
  • Genetics reveals patients susceptible to drug-induced pancreatitis

    15 Sep 2014 | 6:58 am
    It has long been recognized that about four per cent of patients who are prescribed particular drugs for IBD go on to develop pancreatitis, an inflammation of the pancreas, which can be fatal. Now researchers have found that 17 percent of patients who have two copies of a particular genetic marker are likely to go on to develop pancreatitis if they are prescribed thiopurine drugs.
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    WordPress Tag: Physiology

  • August 25th 2014 - John R. Hutchinson, Royal Veterinary College

    biotweep
    25 Aug 2014 | 2:52 am
    The text below is taken from John’s staff bio page at the RVC: I’m a biologist originally from the USA who now resides in the UK as a dual citizen. I received my Bachelor of Science degree in Zoology at the University of Wisconsin in 1993, then obtained my PhD in Integrative Biology at the University of California (Berkeley) with Kevin Padian in 2001, and rounded out my training with a two-year National Science Foundation bioinformatics Postdoctoral Fellow at the Biomechanical Engineering Division of Stanford University with Scott Delp. I started at the RVC as a Lecturer in…
  • Regulation of Immune Responses by mTOR

    researchinitiative
    25 Aug 2014 | 1:53 am
    Regulation of Immune Responses by mTOR http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3616892/ mTOR is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in integrating environmental cues in the form of growth factors, amino acids, and energy. In the study of the immune system, mTOR is emerging as a critical regulator of immune function because of its role in sensing and integrating cues from the immune microenvironment. With the greater appreciation of cellular metabolism as an important regulator of immune cell function, mTOR is proving to be a vital link between…
  • mTor Pathway - Is this the unifying factor in Autism , Epilpesy, Immune Dysfunction and Allergy ?

    researchinitiative
    25 Aug 2014 | 1:06 am
    Children with Autism Have Extra Synapses in Brain newsroom.cumc.columbia.edu May be possible to prune synapses with drug after diagnosis NEW YORK, NY (August 21, 2014) — Children and adolescents with autism have a surplus of synapses in the brain, and this excess is due to a slowdown in a normal brain “pruning” process during development, according to a study by neuroscientists at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC). Because synapses are the points where neurons connect and communicate with each other, the excessive synapses may have profound effects on how the brain functions.
  • [Claude] and chaos.

    Jesi V. Taylor
    24 Aug 2014 | 2:58 pm
    This is my response to everything going on in the world-and my own little world-right now. Time to bring this blog back to life. Slow and steady wins the race? Does it matter? I’ll stay in the silence of the Cold. “Life, this anti-entropy, ceaselessly reloaded with energy, is a climbing force, toward order amidst chaos, toward light, among the darkness of the indefinite, toward the mystic dream of Love, between the fire which devours itself and the silence of the Cold.” – Albert Claude: Nobel Lecture, The Coming Age of the Cell, December 12, 1974. What was this lecture…
  • The Wonderful World of Threshold Training

    dasDarkhorse
    23 Aug 2014 | 2:26 pm
    Here’s a breakdown of my training regimen for today. All on a bike: 1 hour sub-aerobic 3×10′ AnT less 10 BPM/ (10′ sub-aerobic) 30′ sub-aerobic Now what’s all this lingo? sub-aerobic:think of this as warm up or cool down… This is where the body combines the utilization of glycogen and oxygen to convert energy to fuel you. Aerobic: this is where the body uses oxygen to convert nutrients to fuel. Remember the Krebs cycle? Yeah, that stuff takes place here… Most often the dominant energy system in long distance exercise. This is vital for my…
 
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    CasesBlog - Medical and Health Blog

  • Care of the Homeless - 2014 review from Am Fam Physician

    16 Sep 2014 | 6:00 am
    The impact of the problemOn any given night, more than 610,000 persons in the United States are homeless; a little more than one-third of these are families. Homeless persons are more likely to become ill, have greater hospitalization rates, and are more likely to die at a younger age than the general population. The average life span for a homeless person is between 42 and 52 years. Homeless children are much sicker and have more academic and behavioral problems. What are the causes?Insufficient personal income and the lack of affordable housing are the major reasons for homelessness. A…
  • How playing an instrument benefits your brain - TED-Ed video

    15 Sep 2014 | 6:30 am
    When you listen to music, multiple areas of your brain become engaged and active. But when you actually play an instrument, that activity becomes more like a full-body brain workout. What's going on? Anita Collins explains the fireworks that go off in musicians' brains when they play, and examines some of the long-term positive effects of this mental workout. View full lesson: http://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-playing-an-instrument-benefits-your-brain-anita-collins Posted at Clinical Cases and Images. Stay updated and subscribe, follow us on Twitter and connect on Facebook.
  • The Science of Depression - moving from neurotransmitters to neurogenesis and synaptogenesis

    10 Sep 2014 | 6:00 am
    From ASAP Science: What's going on inside the brain of a depressed person?Recent thinking suggests that rather than a shortage of serotonin, a lack of synaptogenesis (the growth of new synapses, or nerve contacts) and neurogenesis (the generation and migration of new neurons) could cause depression.The main group of medications to treat depression, SSRIs, might promote synaptogenesis and neurogenesis by turning on genes that make ITGB3 as well as other proteins that are involved in these processes. ITGB3 stands for integrin beta-3.If the neurogenesis and synaptogenesis hypothesis holds, a…
  • Chronic Daily Headache: What is the cause? (2014 Am Fam Physician review)

    9 Sep 2014 | 7:00 am
    What is the definition of chronic daily headache?Chronic daily headache is defined as the presence of a headache on 15 days or more per month for at least 3 months. What are the causes?The most common types of chronic daily headache are chronic migraines and chronic tension-type headaches. If a red flag for a secondary cause of headache is present, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head should be performed. All patients should be asked about medication overuse, which can increase the frequency of headaches. Patients who overuse medications for abortive therapy for headache should be…
  • Your Brain On Coffee - one cup has 150 mg of caffeine, 70 times that amount may kill you

    8 Sep 2014 | 6:00 am
    From ASAP Science video: How does the world's favorite drug actually work? The guys from ASAP Science have achieved an amazing success - with only 99 published videos, they have 2 million subscribers on YouTube.It's true. The average cup of coffee contains 150 mg of caffeine or less. The lethal dose is 150 mg/kg, which means that for the average person who weighs 70 kg, 70 cups of coffee (or that amount of caffeine in a tablet) taken at one time could be deadly. Don't forge that caffeine (C8H10N4O2) is the natural pesticide of coffee beans, paralyzing and killing insects that try to feed on…
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    Journal of Applied Physiology current issue

  • Effects of 5 days of head-down bed rest, with and without short-arm centrifugation as countermeasure, on cardiac function in males (BR-AG1 study)

    Caiani, E. G., Massabuau, P., Weinert, L., Vaida, P., Lang, R. M.
    15 Sep 2014 | 9:00 am
    This study examined cardiac remodeling and functional changes induced by 5 days of head-down (–6°) bed rest (HDBR) and the effectiveness of short-arm centrifugation (SAC) in preventing them in males. Twelve healthy men (mean age: 33 ± 7) were enrolled in a crossover design study (BR-AG1, European Space Agency), including one sedentary (CTRL) and two daily SAC countermeasures (SAC1, 30 min continuously; SAC2, 30 min intermittently) groups. Measurements included plasma and blood volume and left ventricular (LV) and atrial (LA) dimensions by transthoracic echocardiography (2-…
  • Sympathetic ganglion transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery improves femoral blood flow and exercise tolerance

    Cipriano, G., Neder, J. A., Umpierre, D., Arena, R., Vieira, P. J. C., Chiappa, A. M. G., Ribeiro, J. P., Chiappa, G. R.
    15 Sep 2014 | 9:00 am
    We tested the hypothesis that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) over the stellate ganglion region would reduce sympathetic overstimulation and improve femoral blood flow (FBF) after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Thirty-eight patients (20 men, 24 New York Heart Association class III-IV) were randomized to 5-day postoperative TENS (n = 20; 4 times/day; 30 min/session) or sham TENS (n = 18) applied to the posterior cervical region (C7-T4). Sympathetic nervous system was stimulated by the cold pressor test, with FBF being measured by ultrasound Doppler. Femoral vascular…
  • Nutrition interventions in bed rest trials

    Safer, U., Tasci, I., Cintosun, U., Safer, V. B.
    15 Sep 2014 | 9:00 am
  • Long-term obesity promotes alterations in diastolic function induced by reduction of phospholamban phosphorylation at serine-16 without affecting calcium handling

    Lima-Leopoldo, A. P., Leopoldo, A. S., da Silva, D. C. T., do Nascimento, A. F., de Campos, D. H. S., Luvizotto, R. A. M., de Deus, A. F., Freire, P. P., Medeiros, A., Okoshi, K., Cicogna, A. C.
    15 Sep 2014 | 9:00 am
    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between the duration of obesity, cardiac function, and the proteins involved in myocardial calcium (Ca2+) handling. We hypothesized that long-term obesity promotes cardiac dysfunction due to a reduction of expression and/or phosphorylation of myocardial Ca2+-handling proteins. Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were distributed into two groups (n = 10 each): control (C; standard diet) and obese (Ob; high-fat diet) for 30 wk. Morphological and histological analyses were assessed. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo by…
  • Structural remodeling of coronary resistance arteries: effects of age and exercise training

    Hanna, M. A., Taylor, C. R., Chen, B., La, H.-S., Maraj, J. J., Kilar, C. R., Behnke, B. J., Delp, M. D., Muller-Delp, J. M.
    15 Sep 2014 | 9:00 am
    Age is known to induce remodeling and stiffening of large-conduit arteries; however, little is known of the effects of age on remodeling and mechanical properties of coronary resistance arteries. We employed a rat model of aging to investigate whether 1) age increases wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries, and 2) exercise training reverses putative age-induced increases in wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries. Young (4 mo) and old (21 mo) Fischer 344 rats remained sedentary or underwent 10 wk of treadmill exercise training. Coronary resistance…
 
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    MedPage Today Cardiovascular

  • Fatty Dairy May Keep T2D at Bay

    16 Sep 2014 | 10:19 am
    VIENNA (MedPage Today) -- Eating a lot of fatty dairy products, such as cream and fermented milk, seemed to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes development, Swedish researchers said here.
  • Insulin Responses Blunted in South Asians Pre-T2D

    16 Sep 2014 | 9:49 am
    VIENNA (MedPage Today) -- Before they were even diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, South Asians showed a sharper decline in insulin sensitivity and less of a bump in insulin secretion compared with white patients.
  • Hillary to TCT: Fee-for-Service Days Are Numbered

    16 Sep 2014 | 9:30 am
    (MedPage Today) -- WASHINGTON ? Hillary Clinton says fee-for-service medicine is probably an idea whose time has past.
  • Exercise Keeps BP Steady Despite Age (CME/CE)

    16 Sep 2014 | 9:04 am
    (MedPage Today) -- A progressively rising blood pressure trajectory is not an inevitable part of aging in men who remain active and maintain high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, a prospective, population-based study found.
  • TCT: No Harm, No Foul With Triple Therapy (CME/CE)

    15 Sep 2014 | 2:37 pm
    WASHINGTON (MedPage Today) -- Limiting the length of triple therapy for stent patients who require anticoagulation does not increase the benefit or reduce the risk in this population, researchers reported.
 
 
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    Bone and Spine News -- ScienceDaily

  • Protein appears to protect against bone loss in arthritis

    12 Sep 2014 | 8:24 am
    A small protein named GILZ appears to protect against the bone loss that often accompanies arthritis and its treatment, researchers report. Arthritis as well as aging prompt the body to make more fat than bone, and the researchers have previously shown GILZ can restore a more youthful, healthy mix. It also tamps down inflammation, a major factor in arthritis, they say.
  • From worm muscle to spinal discs: An evolutionary surprise

    12 Sep 2014 | 5:53 am
    Thoughts of the family tree may not be uppermost in the mind of a person suffering from a slipped disc, but those spinal discs provide a window into our evolutionary past. They are remnants of the first vertebrate skeleton, whose origins now appear to be older than had been assumed. Scientists have found that, unexpectedly, this skeleton most likely evolved from a muscle.
  • Monitoring response of bone metastases to treatment using MRI, PET

    10 Sep 2014 | 9:04 am
    Imaging technologies are useful in evaluating response to cancer treatment, and this can be done quite effectively for most tumors using RECIST, Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. RECIST works well for tumors located in soft tissue, but not cancers that spread to the bone. More effort, therefore, is needed to improve our understanding of how to monitor the response of bone metastases to treatment using MRI and PET imaging.
  • Blocking single receptor could halt rheumatoid arthritis

    10 Sep 2014 | 7:28 am
    Researchers have shown for the first time how the activation of a receptor provokes the inflammation and bone degradation of rheumatoid arthritis -- and that activation of this one receptor, found on cells in the fluid of arthritic joints, is all that is required.
  • Notch1, osteoblasts play role in bone cancer initiation

    8 Sep 2014 | 10:53 am
    A new mouse model of osteogenic sarcoma, a potentially deadly form of bone cancer, shows that high levels of Notch1, a gene that helps determine cell fate, can drive osteoblasts, cells that normally lead to bone formation, to become cancerous, said researchers.
 
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    Immune System News -- ScienceDaily

  • No innocent bystander: Cartilage contributes to arthritis

    12 Sep 2014 | 8:25 am
    Cartilage plays an active role in the destruction and remodeling of joints seen in rheumatoid arthritis, rather than being an 'innocent bystander' as previously thought, researchers report.
  • Brain inflammation dramatically disrupts memory retrieval networks, study finds

    12 Sep 2014 | 8:25 am
    Brain inflammation can rapidly disrupt our ability to retrieve complex memories of similar but distinct experiences, according to scientists. The study specifically identifies how immune system signaling molecules, called cytokines, impair communication among neurons in the hippocampus, an area of the brain critical for discrimination memory. The findings offer insight into why cognitive deficits occurs in people undergoing chemotherapy and those with autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Protein appears to protect against bone loss in arthritis

    12 Sep 2014 | 8:24 am
    A small protein named GILZ appears to protect against the bone loss that often accompanies arthritis and its treatment, researchers report. Arthritis as well as aging prompt the body to make more fat than bone, and the researchers have previously shown GILZ can restore a more youthful, healthy mix. It also tamps down inflammation, a major factor in arthritis, they say.
  • Dendritic cells affect onset, progress of psoriasis

    12 Sep 2014 | 8:24 am
    Different types of dendritic cells in human skin have assorted functions in the early and more advanced stages of psoriasis report researchers. The scientists suggest that new strategies to regulate the composition of dendritic cells in psoriatic skin lesions might represent an approach for the future treatment of the disease.
  • Commensal bacteria help orchestrate immune response in lung

    11 Sep 2014 | 1:32 pm
    Signals from the bacteria that harmlessly -- and often beneficially -- inhabit the human gastrointestinal tract boost the immune system's ability to kill a major respiratory pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae, according to a study conducted on mice.
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    Nervous System News -- ScienceDaily

  • EEG study findings reveal how fear is processed in the brain

    15 Sep 2014 | 1:52 pm
    New research illustrates how fear arises in the brain when individuals are exposed to threatening images. This novel study is the first to separate emotion from threat by controlling for the dimension of arousal.
  • Combining Epilepsy Drug, Morphine Can Result in Less Pain, Lower Opioid Doses

    15 Sep 2014 | 12:36 pm
    Adding a common epilepsy drug to a morphine regimen can result in better pain control, fewer side effects and reduced morphine dosage, according to research. The result could bring significant relief to many patients with neuropathic pain, a difficult-to-treat condition often felt in the arms and legs and associated with nerve tissue damage.
  • Brain development in schizophrenia strays from normal path

    15 Sep 2014 | 5:37 am
    Schizophrenia is generally considered to be a disorder of brain development and it shares many risk factors, both genetic and environmental, with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and intellectual disability. The normal path for brain development is determined by the combined effects of a complex network of genes and a wide range of environmental factors. However, longitudinal brain imaging studies in both healthy and patient populations are required in order to map the disturbances in brain structures as they emerge, researchers say.
  • Hypersensitivity to non-painful events may be part of pathology in fibromyalgia

    15 Sep 2014 | 5:37 am
    New research shows that patients with fibromyalgia have hypersensitivity to non-painful events based on images of the patients’ brains, which show reduced activation in primary sensory regions and increased activation in sensory integration areas. Findings suggest that brain abnormalities in response to non-painful sensory stimulation may cause the increased unpleasantness that patients experience in response to daily visual, auditory and tactile stimulation.
  • Brain inflammation dramatically disrupts memory retrieval networks, study finds

    12 Sep 2014 | 8:25 am
    Brain inflammation can rapidly disrupt our ability to retrieve complex memories of similar but distinct experiences, according to scientists. The study specifically identifies how immune system signaling molecules, called cytokines, impair communication among neurons in the hippocampus, an area of the brain critical for discrimination memory. The findings offer insight into why cognitive deficits occurs in people undergoing chemotherapy and those with autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases.
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